The visually impaired patients can belong to them depending on the symptoms of visual impairment in four groups: persons with central scotomas (eg, macular degeneration), people with serious difficulties in the control of eye movements (eg, nystagmus), people with limited peripheral vision, but with partially preserved central vision (eg glaucoma) people with amblyopia and refractive defects secondary to diabetic retinopathy.
The most frequent pathologies are related macular degeneration, diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts inoperable and trauma.
Cataracts – Vision for far
In the presence of cataracts, impaired transparency of the lens leads to a dull image
Cataracts – Vision for near
In subjects with cataract printed characters appear blurred and lacking contrast.
Glaucoma – Vision for far
In cases of glaucoma treated promptly, the pressure on the optic nerve leads to a loss of peripheral vision.
Glaucoma – Vision for near
Generally near vision remains very good
Patients with macular degeneration and glaucoma should periodically test their field of vision with the Amsler test.
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